Confloenta was a Roman city, today located 7 km. from Sepulveda (Segovia) in central Spain, next to the confluence of the Duratón and Serrano rivers. The city was founded by the consul Tito Didio between 95 and 94 a.C., after Rome conquered these territories to the Celtiberian people of the Arévacos (Ptolomeo, 2,6,55). The Romans moved the population of Sepulveda located in an strategic place easy to defend, to the plain, where Cofloenta was built. As its name in Latin indicates, the new city was located at a crossroads between the cities of Segovia-Termes, and Clunia-Complutum, the first urban nucleus by Somosierra, a mountain pass that divides the two great Spanish plateaus. These routes were also used for transhumance or cattle traffic from the North where they grazed in summer, to the South where they moved in winter.
The city of Confloenta, became a municipality of Latin law in the year 74 AD, thanks to the edict of Vespasiano that granted the ius latii or the Latin citizenship to all Hispania. Its period of greatest expansion was from that moment until the end of the Antonian emperors at the end of the 2nd century AD. The city continued being inhabited during the 5th century AD. becoming a Visigothic population, until it was abandoned in 8th century AD. with the Muslim invasion, returning to growth in the nearby Sepúlveda.
Confloenta has an hypodamic scheme. Public areas are placed to the Center and South of the city. Here were discovered the Central Thermal Baths, with its mosaics, capitols and columns, partly excavated in 1795. The piles of storage pots and iron and glass slag show the existence of workshops and production areas on the outskirts. The epigraphs found in Duratón reveal the existence of a nearby necropolis.
The growth of the city of Confloenta was caused by three main reasons; the proximity to the iron and silver mines of the nearby mountains, the fertility of its land for growing cereals, and especially its cattle. Placed in an important cattle crossing, one of the most important cattle fairs of the Roman Hispania was celebrated in the city. The memory of this market remained for a very long time and still today the place is known as "the Markets". A good example is the forum pecuarium or regional macellum, preserved on the outskirts of the city. It is a square enclosure, 150 m on one side (22,500 m2) delimited by walls of opus caementicium. This forum is the largest in Hispania and one of the few preserved of the entire Roman Empire.
After some important Roman remains were found, among which stand out some mosaics, the first excavations took place in 1795, directed by the famous architect Juan de Villanueva. Investigations were restarted in 1942 and 1949, with the excavation of the Visigoth necropolis on one side of the beautiful Romanesque church that stands at one side of the site. This necropolis is one of the most important in Spain with 666 excavated tombs, many of which had rich grave goods today exhibited in the Museum of Segovia.
A new research program has recently started under the direction of Santiago Martínez, director of the Archaeological Museum of Segovia. Excavations have focused on the southern access where hot springs have been discovered. A large corridor with a big sewer undernith has been identified, a large reception room or vestibulum paved with a geometric theme mosaic, and a room with hydraulic mortar floor apodyterium, a sauna or laconicum, and two spaces equipped with hippocaustum and suspended floor for hot baths: caldarium and tepidarium.
The archaeological focus for 2018 is to continue the excavations at the southern entrance of the city, with special interest in the southern bath house. The local government of Segovia will invest in the restoration and reconstruction of the excavated area, to prepare it for the future visitors.
The building has started to be extavated in the Summer of 2017, in a campaign that has permitted to exhume around 500 m2 of surface, of a building of mroe than 2000 m2 in size.
SEMINARS AND WORKSHOPS
6:30-13:00 Field work
14:00/14:30 Lunch break
17:30-20:00 Sepúlveda: Lab work. Cleaning finds, inventory, graphic and planimetric documentation, and photography.
We will be staying at a local house with a beautiful garden in Sepúlveda, 7km from the site.
Sepúlveda is a very picturesque and beautiful town in the province of Segovia, Castile & León. It was an important Celtiberian settlement in the Iron Age. The town is first mentioned in the Chronicle of Alfonso III. In 1111 took place the Battle of Candespina in Sepulveda lands, that resulted in the independence of Portugal.
dates & fees
Program Dates 2018:
August 5 -25
Program Fees: $1,750
• Full Room and Board
• Seminars and workshops
• Pintia literature
• Excursions and other activities
• Airport pick-up/drop-off on first and last days of program
• Medical Insurance
• Application fee
• Administrative costs
Part of your fee will go toward the research project
Fees DO NOT include airfare.
To reserve a space, you must pay a $300 application fee.
The remainder of the program fee will be due by APRIL 15.
Application fees will be refunded if the applicant is not selected.
Rolling applications start when this page is updated for the following year. We accept applications until all spaces are filled.
Cancellation and Refund Policy:
You should begin making travel plans as soon as your place in the group is reserved, and you should complete them upon being notified of your selection. We strongly recommend that participants purchase travel insurance to cover all needs including medical, accident, baggage loss, delays, and personal liability.
ArchaeoSpain and the University of Valladolid are not travel providers, nor are registered travel agents. Your travel arrangements to and from Spain are subject to the terms and conditions of your travel agency. In the rare event that the program is cancelled, ArchaeoSpain and the University of Valladolid will refund program fees, but is not responsible for non-refundable airline or other tickets or payments or any similar penalties that may be incurred. It is your responsibility to protect yourself against airline and travel agency cancellation fees.
Participants are covered by an insurance policy through the University of Valladolid that provides medical and surgical treatment and prescription drugs in case of accident or sudden illness.
This insurance has always been reliable and in the past it has worked well for most unexpected illnesses or accidents. It is limited, though, so we recommend that participants have some backup insurance so they can be covered in case of more serious events. Please contact our staff for more information.
European students should bring an EHIC card with them.
Right of Refusal:
ArchaeoSpain and the University of Valladolid reserve the right to refuse an applicant’s selection. This is a rare occurrence and is most likely due to a person’s inability to meet health requirements or in the interest of group compatibility.
Once in the field, the program director reserves the right to send a participant away from the program should that person’s behavior compromise the safety, research objectives, and general performance of the group, or violate Spanish laws, regulations, or customs.
ARCHAEOSPAIN GROUP LEADER
The archaeological program of Confloenta won't be complete without the historical and fun excursions to the nearby towns and natural parks .
Full day excursions:
Segovia is a World Heritage City northwest of Madrid, in central Spain's Castile and León region. The settlements from Celtiberians to present have given the town a rich architectural legacy, such as: Medieval walls, Romanesque churches, a former royal palace and a Gothic cathedral. Its iconic ancient Roman aqueduct has more than 160 arches, most in the original mortarless granite, and stands above Plaza Azoguejo in the heart of the city. Along with the Pont du Gard in France, is one of the best-preserved Roman aqueducts.
The Alcázar of Segovia was built in 1120, around 32 years after the city of Segovia returned to Christian hands (during the times of the reconquest, when King Alfonso VI reconquered lands to the south of the Duero river down to Toledo and beyond).
Hoces del Rio Duratón Natural Park. The river Duratón has excavated deep gorges in this park, which today is a spectacular refuge for numerous birds of prey. It is possible to go on two types of basic tours: from above, skirting the abyss, and from below, following the bank of the river.
San Frutos. The temple is a Romanesque construction of the 12th century built over another visigoth construction of the 7th century. The foundation is attributed to San Frutos (642-715) and his two siblings, Valentine and Saint Engracia, who chose the place to devote themselves to contemplative life. Later the complex was completed with a monastery and a cemetery.
Fuentidueña. Small city with the latin name of Fons Domine. Was ocuppied for the Arabs until the defeat of Almanzor by the christians in the battle of Calatañazor in 1002. Besides being a Romanesque hermitage of great beauty, it preserves the enclosure of the old castle and fortress.
Cuéllar. Cuéllar is a town that lies to the north of Segovia province. Its walls, castle and San Martín church were declared to be National Historical and Artistic Monuments. The castle of the Dukes of Alburquerque (15th and 16th century) is situated in the highest part of the town. It has a rectangular ground plan and four turrets, one at each corner.